The Battle of Montecassino and other battles in this area during this period were lengthy and resulted in an immense loss of lives. There are many war cemeteries located nearby Montecassino as a result that we can visit today. Among these is the Polish cemetery which can be seen from the rebuilt abbey. Here lie 1,000 Polish soldiers who perished while fighting the final battle at Montecassino in May of 1944. There is a memorial marked with inscriptions in Polish saying: "For our freedom and yours / We soldiers of Poland / Gave our soul to God / Our bodies to the soil of Italy and our hearts to Poland". Historical Papal visits to Montecassino and the Polish war cemetery and memorial include Pope John Paul II in 1979 and in 1980 as well as Pope Benedict XVI in 2009. The Commonwealth War cemetery in Cassino is the resting place for fallen men from Britain, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and India. Here there are more than 4,000 graves, hundreds of which are unidentified soldiers. To the north in Nettuno you can find the cemetery and its memorials for the American soldiers who gave their lives during the war. There are nearly 8,000 graves here, most of them having died during other battles during WWII including the attack at nearby Anzio. In Caira, 3 kilometers to the north of Cassino, more than 20,000 travertine crosses mark the graves of the German soldiers who lost their lives in the South of Italy.